Molar pregnancy is caused by a genetic error which at the time of fertilization causes the growth of abnormal tissue in the uterus instead of a fetus. It appears like a cluster of grapes and grows at a rapid speed as compared to a fetus. There are two types of molar pregnancies complete molar pregnancy and partial molar pregnancy.
Partial Molar Pregnancy
A partial molar pregnancy is the one in which an incomplete embryo and placenta start to develop. It is a variant of molar pregnancy. It is caused by a genetic error. At the time of fertilization an embryo has a total of 46 chromosomes 23 from each parent but in partial molar the embryo has 69 because he egg is fertilized by two sperms. Partial molar is less common than molar pregnancy.
Partial molar pregnancy symptoms are vomiting, severe nausea and high blood pressure in the first trimester. This kind of pregnancy is diagnosed by the doctor upon doing and ultrasound which will show the presence of cysts in the uterus. The doctor will also test the levels of hormone beta HCG, the pregnancy hormone which is normally present in pregnant women a week after fertilization and continues to increase in amount rapidly, but in case of partial molar this hormone is at lower level and the rise in its level is also very slow.
The treatment of partial molar pregnancy is by removal of the embryo and placenta from the uterus. This is done through a procedure known as dilatation and curettage (D&C). After the procedure the doctor will monitor the level of beta HCG for a year to know whether there is any molar tissue remaining. If there are some remnants of the tissue then the doctor will prescribe methotrexate which is also used for the treatment of cancer.